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Zhitlowsky, Chaim, 1865-1943 · Person · 1865-1943

Born in Ushashy, Russian Empire (present day Belarus).

He was a Russian Jewish theoretician, writer and revolutionary. He was a founder of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, one of the foremost socialist parties in the Russian Empire, and an important promoter of Jewish Diaspora nationalism and Yiddishism. He was vice-president of the Czernowitz Yiddish Language Conference in 1908. He inspired the foundation of the territorialist Jewish Socialist Workers Party in the Russian Empire (the Sejmist Movement) in 1904. He emigrated to the U.S.A. at the start of the First World War, where he joined the Zionist-socialist Poale Zion party. In the late 1930s, he was active in the pro-Soviet Yiddisher Kultur Farband and in the Organization for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union. He died in Calgary, Canada, while on a conference tour.

Adler, Celia, 1899-1979 · Person · 1899-1979

Celia Adler was born Tzirele Adler in New York City on December 6, 1889, to Jacob Adler and Dinah Shtettin, who were both Yiddish theater actors. She was an American actress, known as the “First Lady of the Yiddish Theatre”. She was first and foremost a theater actress, but she also starred in several films. She toured North and South America, as well as Europe, and held leading roles in numerous Yiddish plays. She last appeared on stage in 1961.

Blank, Leon, 1867-1934 · Person · 1867-1934

Leon Blank was born in Kishinev, Bessarabia (present-day Chisinau, Moldavia) in 1864. He was one of the most famous Yiddish theater actor in the U.S.A.

His family moved to Romania when he was a child. He moved to the U.SA. in 1886, as a member of Sigmund Mogulesko's theater company. Originally a choir singer, he became with time one of the most recognized and celebrated name of Yiddish theater in North America, touring across the U.S.A. He was one of the founders of the Hebrew Actor's Union in 1899.

Entin, Yoel, 1875-1959 · Person

Joel Entin was born in Pohost, Rusrian Empire (present-day Belorussia). He was a Yiddish writer, translator, educator and political activist. He moved to Moscow in 1890, and then to New York in 1891.He collaborated with several Jewish American publications, co-founded Yiddish teaching institutions, translated literary works from English to Yiddish, and was active in the Jewish theater milieu as a founder and director of the Fraye yidishe folks-bine in 1896 and then of the Progressive Dramatic Club in 1902. He was also a leader of the Poale Zion in America. · Person · 1927-2007

Born in Czernowitz, at the time in Romania, in 1927. A Yiddish linguist, writer and educator associated with YIVO, and a lecturer at Columbia University.

He began his lifelong association with the YIVO Institute of Jewish Research while in a Displaced Persons camp in Austria, between 1947 and 1951. After earning a doctorate in linguistics at the University of Vienna in 1951, he left for the United States of America, and served in American military intelligence during the Korean War. He then settled in New York City, and worked at YIVO, at YIVO's Yiddishe Shprakh linguistic journal, and founded the Committee for the Implementation of the Standardized Yiddish Orthography in 1958. He also had an extensive career as a teacher of Yiddish, published numerous books on the Yiddish language and was an editor of The Great Dictionary of the Yiddish Language and of The Language and Culture Atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry.

Lebedeff, Aaron, 1873-1960 · Person

Aaron Lebedeff was born in Gomel, Russian Empire (present-day Belorussia) in 1873. He became a Russian and Yiddish theater actor touring Russia and Poland. He was mobilized in the Russian army during the First World War, and was sent to serve in Harbin, China. After the war, he moved from there to Japan, and then to the U.S.A. in 1920, where he soon became a Yiddish theater star. He lived in the U.S.A. for the rest of his life.

Marmor, Kalman, 1879-1956,_Kalmon,_1876-1956 · Person · 1879-1956

Kalman Marmor was born in 1879 near Vilnius, Russian Empire (present-day Lithuania). He was a Jewish writer, literary critic, scholar, editor and political activist.

He emigrated to Switzerland in 1899 for his studies, before moving to the U.S.A. in 1906. There, he joined the Poale Zion movement, co-founded the World Union of Poale Zion and became an editor of its weekly newspaper, Der Yiddisher Kemfer. He contributed to Jewish periodicals across Europe and the U.S.A. He joined a predecessor of the Communist Party of the U.S.A. in 1919, and joined the Yiddish-language Communist daily Morgen Frayhayt in 1922, contributing to it until his death. He lived in Kiev in 1933-1936, working in the Institute for Jewish Studies of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, editing the works of pioneer of Jewish socialism Aaron Lieberman and of American Jewish sweatshop poets Joseph Bovshover and David Edelstadt. The Institute was closed down by the Soviet government in 1936, and most of his work there was lost. Marmor, a U.S. citizen, was arrested and then released, and moved back to the United States. · Person

Morris Winchevsky was born as Leopold Benzion Novokhovitch in Jonava, Russian Empire (present-day Lithuania) in 1856. He was a Jewish socialist leader, author, and editor.

After studying in a kheder and in a Russian secular school, he moved to Königsberg, East Prussia in 1877, where he began to publish articles, novels and poems in socialist Hebrew newspapers. He was expelled from the German Empire for his socialist activism, and moved to London, where he founded Der Poylisher Yidl (The Little Polish Jew), one of the first Yiddish daily socialist newspapers, and the Arbeter Fraynd, the first Yiddish-language anarchist newspaper.

He immigrated to the United States in 1894, and he co-founded the New York City-based daily Forverts in 1897, together with Abraham Cahan and Louis Miller. Originally a member of the Socialist Labor Party of America, he was expelled, together with Cahan and Miller, for their implication in the Forverts. Winchevsky was later selected as the representative of the Jewish Socialist Federation to the American Jewish Congress when the AJC met to select its delegates to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He was subsequently associated with the Communist Party USA and its Yiddish daily Morgen Freiheit, and made a trip to the USSR in 1924-1925, from which he came back enthusiastic about the socialist state. He was also a member of the Proletarian Poets, a circle of working-class socialist jewish poets formed with Morris Rosenfeld, David Edelstadt, and Joseph Bovshover.

He was later considered as the grand-father of socialist jewish literature in the Soviet Union, and a United Jewish People's Order-run school in Toronto was named after him.

Periodical · 1906-1939

Founded in 1906 as the Yidishes Tageblat ("Jewish Daily News") and renamed in 1908, Haynt ("Today") was a Yiddish daily newspaper published in Warsaw until 1939. It was quickly recognized as the premier Yiddish-language newspaper in Poland.